Study guide #3 History of the Sugar industry (how Sugar started and developed) -Sugarcane was brought to the settlement by the Maya/Mestizo people who were running away from the Caste war -The colonial authorities developed the industry through creating a factory in 1937 bringing in the Colonial Agricultural Development Company which controlled the industry - In 1944 the sugar industry grew from 4 small farmers delivering 712 tons to 122 farmers delivering 12,875 tons which means that the small farmers expanded their fields.
Sugar control ordinance -Due to the growth of the industry in 1959 the sugar control ordinance was passed in which they controlled delivery licenses and quotas. - The farmers joined and formed the Cane Farmers association which was responsible to negotiate on behalf of the farmers, organize cane delivery and make loans to members -The industry created two sectors: the small scale farmers, and the foreign owned large farmers wo small scale farmers leaders were Mateo Ayuso (Graduate of SJC) and Jesus Ken (Maya) from Xaibe
The social situation in 1960’s -The economic project of the PUP was through capitalism which is an economic system in which trade, industries, and the means of production are largely or entirely privately owned and operated for profit. What was meant by it is that the big owners would have control over the lands and industry. -Sugar replaced Mahogany as the main product -After Self-government the PUP government took the same philosophy of the British. The economy was not the best since it benefitted principally only the large land owners (a few) and different manifestations against the system began to happen. -The Role of Tate and Lyle; this company was attracted by the PUP administration through creating opportunities for them, when they came into the settlement they wanted to take control of the sugar industry. So they demanded large parcels of lands and the small farmers did not have access to land. Tate and Lyle was part of the capitalist project. -Some of the organizations that created negative manifestations include: The Cane Farmer’s Union, United Black association for Development (UBAD), and People’s Action Committee (PAC)
The Caneros Movement --The large company controlled the land and the peasants were simply cane cutters -When the governor went to deliver a speech in Corozal in 1957. Jesus Ken organized a demonstration he created charts depicting the company as an octopus. He had 50 demonstrators and as a result of that he was attracted to the PUP. -Ken’s Objective: Because he realized that the capitalist system was giving land and control of the industry to a few. Ken wanted to make the peasants, whether milperos or cane cutters, owners of land and independent producers of cane. He did not want them working for the big companies. He Founded the Northern Cane Workers Union and began wrote a Newsletter (EL AZUCARERO) in which he expressed how 15 persons controlled 60% of the sugar industry. *****************
THE 1962 STRIKE - Ken instructed the cane cutters to “place lighted candles protected by rubbish in the middle of a cane field when leaving work. The candle would burn down by nightfall, and the field would blaze without police being able to find anyone.” The cane needed to be cut and delivered in 24 hours or else it loses its sucrose value. The strike lasted for ten days and a substantial increase was won for the cutter. ******** - In 1963 Tate and Lyle was buying over the Corozal sugar factory and lands with the support of the PUP. Although Ken was part of the PUP he organized a demonstration in which “80 men armed with machetes, shotguns, and assorted weapons marched onto company lands, stopped the tractors from working”. Ken sent a telegram to Price demanding the lands be given to the peasants. -Price joined with Ayuso the other cane leader; the company Tate and Lyle created the factory in Orange-walk. Ken was brought down as a leader and Florencio Marin was supported by Price and Ayuso. MILITANT MOVEMENTS -UBAD is the United Black Association for Development which was inspired by Marcus Garvey’s ideas based on Black empowerment. -Objectives of UBAD: it was a social organization that fought for Black empowerment and wanted the reaction of the youths to have self-love under the slogan “I am black and I am Proud”. They declared the British Imperialism was simply being replaced by the US imperialism. They had a strong campaign against capitalism that only benefitted the rich and powerful. ************ -EVAN X HYDE was the leader of the UBAD movement he had an English degree from the US, was a lecturer at the Belize Technical College, and had Meetings at Freedom hall: ‘Black is Beautiful’ and spread his ideas through the newspaper AMANDALA. -PEOPLE’S ACTION COMMITTEE: had two leader namely ASSAD SHOMAN and SAID MUSA. Their organization was mostly relating to Political changes and education of the people based on the move for change. -UBAD AND PAC joined to form Revolitical Action Movement (RAM); both the PUP AND NIP did not support the movement because they were fighting for the peasants. A split happened in RAM because of a clash of ideas.